A2_Week 11 Task

Tūrangawaewae that is a fundamental part within the pōwhiri process describes the place that one is from. The integral part of this concept is having an understanding of that place with awareness of it historcal and cultural attributes. The concept offers you to think about how its importance relates to you.

The work that I made in response to this concept was a three dimensional cube that was covered with a short text explaining our birth place. Our narrative was illustrated with a variety of different design layouts. The text was wrapped around the box through careful consideration on it would be read by the viewer. The audience is guided around this three dimensional narrative. This is our own Tūrangawaewae. My text explains my birth place being South Africa and how its deep indigenous land and culture has utter importance to who I am today.

The concept of Tūrangawaewae dwells into the significance of the country we were born in to us though of me being of European decent, the idea of indigeneity is conflicted. My work talks about how I am more connected to the indigenous culture of my birth place, rather than my Western ancestry.  This can make reference to the discussion by Tuhiwai Smith on loss of indigeneity in a country through western accounts (5).

Work Cited:

Tuhiwai Smith, Linda. “Introduction”. Decolonising methodologies – Research and indigenous peoples. London and New York – Zed Books, 2012, 1-18..pdf



A2_Week 10 Task

I remember those young children on the backs of their mothers walking down a highway. I remember the boys with the worn out shoes begging outside the supermarket. The blind elderly clutching onto their older grand children. Growing up in a poverty stricken country like South Africa I am accustomed to the sight of those unfortunate. Even though living in an area not the worst of the lot, the sightings of this problem day to day did not become unnoticeable. This was especially due to the top three most undeveloped places in the country being about a 30-minute car ride away. Since moving to Wellington at the beginning of this year seeing the significant amount of homeless people where I walk once again day to day has led me to become disheartened. In a country that prides themselves as a people nation, that gives benefits to those in need and who thoroughly supports their elderly. A country that is among st the first world, I hoped I would re-live less days to see those with worn out shoes on a child’s feet.

Plan B. Nathan Pohio. Impromptu based urban documentary, Cathedral Square, Christchurch. 1995.  


Work Cited:

Smith, H., Solomon, O., Tamarapa, A., Tamati-Quennell, M., & Heke, N. (Eds.). (2007).Taiāwhio II. Contemporary Mäori artists. 18 new conversations. Wellington, New Zealand.



A2_ Week 9 Task

A) wk-9-powhiri-photo

B) One of the Maori stereotypes discussed in Dick’s lecture and by Wall is the quintessential Maori. This is one that was brought upon by themselves that went against the colonist history of Maori. This was a re-establishment of their identity to see them as they were before the country was colonized by Europeans (Wall, 43). There is a relation to the known stereotype of appearing primitive or typically traditional. However, the true representation of what they were in the past has been made unrealistic. In the well known film Once Were Warriors as discussed by Wall, in a contemporary setting Maori were perceived as being all masculine, covered in tattoos and only somewhat clothed (44).

Work Cited:
Wall, Melanie. “Research” Stereotypical Constructions of the Māori Race in the Media. New Zealand Geography. 1997. pdf

A2_ Week 8 Blog Task_Part 1

Washday at the Pa series. Ans Westra. Photograph. Ruatoria, New Zealand. 1964.

This photograph is part of a 1968 series called Washday at the Pä, depicting a rural Maori family living in the countryside. The family is comprised of a mother and nine children. Westra, the photographer intended to show a happy family in the country (The Dominion). However, as this work was published by government cooperation in a public bulletin it raised a fair amount of controversy (Te Papa). One of the key points discussed in Greg’s lectures is that poverty was seen both among rural Maori families and those living in the country around this time. Welfare groups criticized the poor standard living ahown in this photograph contributed to a stereotype for all Maori families to be put under. It is stated  in Washday at the Pä Controversy Te Papa article, that at this time the standard of living was improving that included these families moving towards cities into state housing.

Work Cited:

Te Papa: Museum of New Zealand, Parade (Te Papa exhibition-14 February 1998 to May 2001): Washday at the Pa Controversy, Te Papa: Museum of New Zealand. Web. Date Accessed: 29 September 2016.

The Dominion, Booklet Decision Angers Author. (1964). 4 August.


A2_ Week 7 Blog Task

  1. A main key point from the Week 7 lecture is the contact New Zealand had with the Pacific Islands after colonization. European religion, Christianity was brought to these Islands which had both positive and negative implications on the people. These populations where individuals became missionaries themselves preached to others in these places. It is discussed in the lecture that this contributed to a change in material culture. As stated in the official Cook Island website displaying carefully researched facts on the islands, Tivaevae was introduced by European missionaries that has been an important part of their culture. The tapa cloth is often used in traditional ceremonies (Cook Islands).

2. A art response to the socio-political situation that occurred during the late 20th Century for Pacific Islanders in New Zealand are the t-shirt designs of artist Siliga David Setoga. The products are part of the company POPHARDWEAR designed in 2004. The use of words relates to the both diminishing or common colloquial language of the time. The re-wording of these phrases however have an addition of humour to them (Anae,237). By doing so the often wearers of these garments, Pacific Islanders rather pride themselves by representing them as more an identity.


3. The Documentary “Dawn Raids” Directed by Damon Fepulea in 2005 is about the mid-70s socio-political issue of the removing of Polynesian from New Zealand. People share their personal stories of this controversial time where the police raided their homes, often at 3am. At the beginning of the short 45 minute film, the director shows the origins of this issue. This was that Pacific Islanders were offered unskilled labour in this after the countries economic downfall after the world wars, this being done on a three month work visas. The film also discusses the activist group The Polynesian Panthers that contributed an end to the dawn raids policy.

Work Cited:

Anae, Melani. ‘Polynesian Panther logo, 1970’s’ All power to the people. 2012. Tangata o le Moana. Wellington. New Zealand. Te Papa. Press. Page 237.

Fepulea’i, D. “The Dawn Raids.” 2005. Documentary.
Jarvy, Web. “Tivaevae- Cook Islands communal art”. Cook Islands. July 15 2004. Web. Date Accessed: 25 Sept. 2016.

A1 Week 6 Blog Task

  1. The idea of ‘art’ being a European concept is an important aspect to think about when viewing the works of both Pakeha and Maori visual culture about the time of colonization. European journals and writings better displayed the history and culture of the settlers more than the oral narratives (Anderson, 132). This means that Maori culture was more seen from an outsiders perspective. As art is a westernized idea, the indigenous views was less praised by people compared to the European artist views. Throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries this type of art was also seen as primitive art, not being among the mainstream art world (Wheki,7). Thus being displayed within international or even national galleries was and remains to have a rare appearance.

A 20th Century Art Example with a Maori worldview:


Te Mihaia te Tuatahi, Arnold Manaaki Wilson, Wooden (puriri) Sculpture. 1965.

The sculpture is a Maori response to the modernist movement during the 20th Century. The clean and simplified form gives similarities to the works of the famous sculptor Constantin Brâncusi. The subject of the work is based on the prophet and land rights activist Rue Kenana whose one his main purposes was to reclaim the Tuhoe land taken by the European settlers. This occurred  at the beginning of the 19oo’s where in the past century much of tapu tribal land was confiscated from the Maori settlers. This time in history has mainly been brodcasted through early Pakeha artworks and scriptures.

Work Cited:

Anderson, Atholl, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. “Chapter 5: In the Foreign Gaze”  Tangata whenua: An Illustrated History. Pages 132- 159. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Wheoki, J.M. “Art Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Journal of Art Historiography 4 (2011):1-12. Print.

A1_Week 4 Blog Task

  1. An important principle in relation to tikanga in Maori culture is tapu. This refers to both a spiritual and sacred aspect to an object, person or place. It is believed that this is present upon all tikanga and resembles the identity of the individual and that place (Mead, 30). Every being, place or object has tapu that links it to spiritual elements and an important factor of this principle is to have faith of its occurrence (Mead, 32). In art and design practices, one should be aware of the tapu around them and should know how to correctly use any elements for their works with valid background understanding beforehand.
Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. Use “Taonga works and intellectual property” to inform your response, including quotes and citations where appropriate (100 words).
2. New Zealand’s intellectual property and copyright laws do not correctly protect the kaitaki relationship between a taonga work and its matauranga Maori value behind it. Kaitakitanga is the obligation of a lineage or group to protect the body of knowledge and values that come with the work. These laws and rights help protect the artists way of expressing that work and the physicality however not the ideas brought across themselves (Ko Aotearoa Tēnei, 39). This enables misuse of matauranga Maori by non-Kaitaki that do not fully understand this relationship. The Kaitaki are not intended to keep their taonga from the public as that is part of their value for it be shared yet, the importance is to continue to present it with authenticity.
Work Cited:
Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print. File.
“Taonga Works and Intellectual Property.” Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Te Taumata Tuatahi: A Report into Claims concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. Wellington, N.Z.: Legislation Direct, 2011. 29-59. Print.

A2 Week 5 Blog Task Chapter 9: Wars and Survival Summary

In the 1860 and 1870’s, a civil war between the Maori settlers and the Crown occurred in reaction to British Sovereignty working to colonize the country. The settlers set out to protect their land whilst the Europeans sought to attain this land through with violence and assertion. Beginning in Taranaki and different conflicts spiraling out from there was the selling and claiming rights between these two opposing groups. In regard to what was written in the treaty the Government sought to relinquish this and confiscate the settlers land to gain future security and power (Binney, 264).The Europeans ultimately won over the most of the Maori’s land. Loss of lives of women and children, the burning of meeting houses and slaughter of innocent soldiers was the result of this ten year conflict. “Tamihana wrote: ‘I discovered that this would be a very great war, because it was conducted in such a pitiless manner'” (Binney, 266).

Explain how you think these events impacted on visual and material culture in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

The visual and material culture in New Zealand had been mainly Pakeha artworks due to the strong influence of the European sovereignty that made them become the dominating race. Therefore the Maori point of view  of these events  was represented until later in the 20th Century. Maori art then has been largely focused on the stories of colonization from their ancestors and relatives around this time more than other events in history.

Work Cited:

Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha.”Chapter 9: Wars and Survival”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams Books, 2012. Print.

A1_ Week 3 Blog Task

Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki, Photographed by Richard Wotton. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Page 73.

This canoe with rare geometric ancestral carvings is a piece of that reflects the second phase, the Transitional or the growth period in Maori art history. This object was said to be created during the fifteenth century (Anderson, 73). It contains the geometric styles of both Polynesian ancestry and later Maori era styles. This demonstrates the change that occurred during this period in Maori history. During this time between 1300-1600 AD, it was a time of adaptation where there was an introduction of new ideas and materials from the still relatively new environment. Anderson states that not many tools or belongings that the Polynesians brought with them survived but evident markings on objects, similar to this canoe show their cultural carvings (76).  On this object, the Polynesian style is reflected with the geometric straight lining as seen on the bottom left photograph. The new styles during the Maori era are the more circular patterning shown in the bottom right photograph.

Work Cited:

Anderson, Atholl. “Pieces of the Past” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand. Bridget Williams Books.Pages 70-101. 2014. Print.